Dual-phase steel (DPS) is a high-strength steel that has a ferrite and martensitic microstructure. DPA starts as a low or medium carbon steel and is quenched from a temperature above A1 but below A3 on a continuous cooling transformation diagram. This results in a microstructure consisting of a soft ferrite matrix containing islands of martensite as the secondary phase (martensite increases the tensile strength). The desire to produce high strength steels with formability greater than microalloyed steel led the development of DPS in 1970s.
The steel melt is produced in an oxygen top blowing process in the converter, and undergoes an alloy treatment in the secondary metallurgy phase. The product is aluminum-killed steel, with high tensile strength achieved by the composition with manganese, chromium and silicon.
Their advantages are as follows:
* Low yield strength
* Low yield to tensile strength ratio (yield strength / tensile strength = 0.5)
* High initial strain hardening rates
* Good uniform elongation
* A high strain rate sensitivity (the faster it is crushed the more energy it absorbs)
* Good fatigue resistance
Due to these properties DPS is often used for automotive body panels, wheels, and bumpers.